All trail runners, even professional racers, walk steep grades. "If you can walk faster than you can run, always walk," Fish says. "It conserves energy without costing time."
If you are running with a dog, know the rules.
Some trails require dogs to be on leash; others require dogs to be under voice control. And always clean up after your partner.
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On trails littered with obstacles, seek out clear sections, says Rob Shoaf, founder of Epic Running trail-running camp. Dirt is nearly always a safer bet—even a flat rock can be unstable. "We tend to step where we look, so avoid staring at the rocks; aim for dirt," he says.
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On the trail, proper running form can be the difference between enjoying the scenery and face-planting in the dirt. Start with the basics: relaxed shoulders, arms bent at 90 degrees, feet landing right under your hips. As the trail becomes technical, make these adjustments:
Shorten your stride
"Taking smaller steps will help you maintain your center of gravity," says Elinor Fish, managing editor of Trail Runner
Slightly raise your arms
"Like wings, for balance," Fish says. Relax your shoulders and hands to avoid tension.
Know what's ahead
Alternate between looking up and looking three to seven strides in front of you. "On flat terrain, my eyes are looking up, but on more technical ground, I'm looking closer to me more often," Fish says.
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A narrow stream?
A wide creek?
Look for natural crossings, like a log ("scoot across on your butt," Fish says), or a series of rocks.
A raging river?
Scout for the shallowest, smoothest section (white water indicates rocks below the surface). Face slightly upstream and cross at an angle. If the current is strong, find a branch to use as a walking stick. And if the current takes you, face downstream with your feet up (so they don't get caught on rocks). Steer to the edge where you can climb out.
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